Naturally, the color of the gums corresponds to the color of the skin. They are darker for those with a dark complexion as compared those who have a lighter complexion.
The substances that are primarily responsible for color, or pigmentation, are melanin and creatine. These substances are present in certain proportions in the gums to give them their natural pigmentation, but there may be an imbalance in these proportions, which causes darkening of the gums, called black gums or gingival spot. They present in the form of spots, or in the form of patches or pigmentation on the entire gums. The color may vary between brown and black, and this pigmentation is labelled as 'inorganic gum pigmentation'.
Gingivitis causes other diseases. Some of them are hormonal diseases such as Addison's disease. Sometimes, gingivitis may be caused by wrong use of metal fillings or other dressings that contain minerals. Some medicines may also have an effect on the color of the gums.
Previously, treatments were limited to scraping the gums from places with stains and pigmentation from the outside under local anesthesia and then packaging abrasive rubber membrane followed by visits to inspect the wound. The patient may suffer from pain and inflammation, however, dentists are now using laser.
A periodontal specialist uses a laser device to remove these pigments. The laser beams erbium rays onto the affected spots to get rid of pain, inflammation or any other side effects, so that the gum returns to normal health. Another method uses gingival grafts, to strengthen the gingival or corneal gingival tissue.